Beyond his four themes, Ferguson eventually makes several closing observations about A World Restored and its author. There are none of the outlines, subtitles, bulleted lists, or two-by-two tables that have come to characterize modern political science. Its insights into the past and present are wound throughout its chapters and seep from its paragraphs.
Indeed, the reader who burrows into Restored will find other themes Ferguson left less thoroughly explored. To be sure, these men faced the limitations imposed on them by their respective states, but they rose to the occasion and forged a system with lasting implications for European politics Kissinger , 5.
This could only be done because each acted in the interests of his respective state and pursued conservative foreign policy goals that buttressed international stability. In desiring to ensure Great Britain was not threatened by a Continental Europe under the command of a single power, Castlereagh used the negotiations in Vienna to engineer a system for balancing forces through the Quadruple Alliance Kissinger, , He ultimately hoped regular meetings between the Great Powers, called congresses, might offer a chance for this alliance to respond to security threats as they emerged and before they got out of hand.
Conservative, monarchal states of Europe would band together to prevent revolutions at home and abroad. In the end both Castlereagh and Metternich were vital to the stability that emerged from Vienna. While these men were certainly products of their times, their times did not guarantee a particular outcome. In fact, there was much vacillation between potential policies within the governments concerned Kissinger , The dealings of Metternich and Castlereagh made the post-war world stable.
After all, it is only the individual statesman who can engage in decisive moral acts, who can lead. As new models explaining political interaction are developed in the social sciences, we do well to remember this basic insight into the nature of politics that was so important to Kissinger even so early in his life. Finally, there is a great deal of speculation about the role these historical figures played in the life Henry Kissinger beyond his dissertation.
Fukuyama builds on this assessment. Rather, it was the kind of dissertation whose findings might help mold the mind of a man who would become a future practitioner, a subtle difference. If there is a hero in Restored , however, it may well be Castlereagh Ferguson , Ferguson contends Kissinger is much more ambivalent toward Metternich than often considered in large part because even for all his diplomatic genius, the prince left his country in a much more difficult position than his British counterpart Ferguson , It would be as a realist that Kissinger would make his first-hand mark on the conduct of international affairs Kaplan Realism certainly became his creed.
This was a dangerous cycle, but it could be broken with a return to the conservative realism practiced by Metternich and Castlereagh according to the themes of Restored. It is this view that opened Kissinger up to some criticism. In fact, idealism, in either its traditional liberal form or in what became known as neoconservatism, played a hugely important role throughout modern history, for good or ill. There is no dearth of policy recommendations that flow from A World Restored.
Indeed, students of strategy and diplomacy will do best to consider these in some detail. First, Kissinger firmly makes the case for engaging in ongoing conservative, realist foreign policy. In his mind, it best matches the means of diplomacy and force with the ends of policy and ensures the legitimate, stable world order.
Such a world may not be perfect, but it is better than the chaos of revolution. In the Quadruple Alliance, it was the power that Great Britain brought to bear which ensured stability in Europe. States on the continent might align and realign with one another, but Great Britain could shift its allegiance as necessary to keep balance. Such a role is essential to a modern, stable international system. Finally, there is a humility that readers today should take from reading Restored.
Indeed, the worst can happen in international politics and there may only be choices among bad options. Even the very best strategists and diplomats may not be able to achieve some political goals. Thus, it is ever important to keep the importance of matching means with ends in mind.
That the Congress of Vienna produced a peace that lasted for almost one hundred years makes it a worthwhile case to study. Kissinger — This first entry in that effort is wonderfully written and clearly argued. A historian, Ferguson takes careful time to examine primary and secondary sources in treating his subject, and it shows. Both macro arguments and micro details are accessible and carefully researched.
If students of strategy and diplomacy read one book on Henry Kissinger, this should be it. This is a very short book review written by one of the best known modern political scientists. It is not as detailed as the newer effort, but it still offers important views into the life of its subject, especially the early life leading to his writing A World Restored. Robert Kaplan has built a reputation for popularizing sometimes bulky academic arguments.
This short piece in The Atlantic revisits A World Restored and considers its implications for modern conservatism and realism. In the bottle essay johannes boltze dissertation abstracts texas state admission essay. Summary Completion of a satisfactory dissertation is a university requirement for conferral of a doctoral degree. The Department of Sociology at Western Michigan University follows all of the Graduate College policies regarding the doctoral dissertation procedures.
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The very subject of Kissinger's doctoral thesis raised eyebrows at Harvard, as one biographer, Walter Isaacson, has observed. Metternich's ultimate achievement was to help postpone (until live homework help zip code Phd Dissertation Help Kissinger 10 minute persuasive speeches how to write admissions essays.
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